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Acids and Bases

Introduction

Acids and bases are a particularly difficult topic for many students as they require both quantitative and qualitative knowledge of difficult concepts. This chapter simplifies acids and bases, first reviewing general information, defining Bronsted acid and Bronsted base, and then covering their reactions. Both a quantitative method (using pKa values) and a qualitative method, by which you can determine the acidity or the basicity of a molecule simply by looking at it, are introduced.

We further review curved arrows for simple organic chemistry acid and base reactions and define the conjugate base and the conjugate acid.

 

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Determining the Acidity Practice Problems

The following organic chemistry practice problems test ability to qualitatively solve for the acidity of a molecule.

Determining the Acidity Practice Problems

Test your knowledge with some practice problems.

Determining the Basicity Practice Problems

The following practice problems test ability to determine the basicity of a molecule through qualitative assessment.

Determining The Basicity

Test your knowledge with some practice problems.

Substitution Reactions

Introduction

A substitution reaction is a general reaction in which one atom/group switches places (or substitutes) with another atom/group. Here’s an example:

 

An example of a substitution reaction with hydroxide as the nucleophile and bromine, a halogen, as the leaving group

In the reaction above, the –OH takes the place of the bromine, and the bromine leaves the molecule. This is the general result of substitution reactions; however, there are two different mechanisms by which substitution reactions occur: SN2 reactions and SN1 reactions. We’ll also discuss factors that determine whether a reaction will follow the SN2 mechanism or SN1 mechanism such as solvent (polar aprotic solvent versus polar protic solvents).

 

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SN2 and SN1 Practice Problems

The following practice problems test your knowledge of the two organic chemistry substitution reactions, SN2 reactions and SN1 reactions.

 

Substitution Reaction - SN2 and SN1 Reactions

Test your knowledge with some practice problems.

Aldehyde and Ketones Synthesis

Aldehydes and Ketones Synthesis

Test your knowledge with some synthesis problems.

Alcohols Synthesis

Alcohols

Test your knowledge with some Alcohols problems

Alkynes Synthesis

Alkynes

Test your knowledge with some Alkynes

Amines Synthesis

Amines

Test your knowledge with some synthesis problems.

Aromatic Compounds Synthesis

Aromatic Compounds

Test your knowledge with some synthesis problems.